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See Natural Abundance
The mass of a neutral atom of a nuclide. The atomic weight of an atom is the weight of the atom based on a scale where 12C = 12. The atomic weight of an element is the weighted average of each isotope.
Beta-Delayed Particle Emission(click here for animation)
When a large amount of decay energy is available, the nucleus may emit:
- Alpha particles
following the beta decay.
Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen Cycle (see also hot CNO cycle)
In stars more massive than the sun (>1.1 Solar masses), this cycle is the primary process which converts hydrogen into helium. 12C serves as a catalyst, an ingredient which is necessary for the reaction but is not consumed.
Listing of the steps
Collision process between a gamma ray and a bound atomic electron where only part of the gamma-ray energy is transferred to the electron. The probability for Compton scattering is approximately proportional to Z, and for energies greater than 500 keV approximately proportional to 1/Egamma
An alternate process to x-ray emission during the de-excitation of an excited atom.
Decay Branching %
The isotope decay rate by a particular decay mode. Some isotopes decay by only one mode (100%), and others by more than one mode. For example, 187Pb decay by beta decay (98%) and alpha decay (2%).
Disappearance of a radioactive substance due to nuclear emission of an alpha or beta particle, capture of an atomic electron, neutrinos, spontaneous fission, and the emission of bremsstrahlung, x-rays, and conversion electrons. In rare instances proton, neutron, or light element (for example 14C) emission can occur. When a large amount of decay energy is available, beta-delayed emission of neutrons, protons, and other particles may occur.
A drawing depicting the decay of a parent nucleus to a daughter nucleus. The betas or alphas are shown as arrows from the parent level to daughter level(s). Gamma rays de-exciting daughter levels are shown on the decay scheme.
An elementary particle with a unit electrical charge and a mass 1/1837 of the proton. Electrons surround the atom's positively charged nucleus and determine the atom's chemical properties. In our diagrams, an electron is represented by this:
The energy scale used by most nuclear scientists is electron volts (eV), thousands of electron volts (keV), and millions of electron volts (MeV). An electron volt is the energy acquired when an electron falls through a potential difference of 1 volt. 1 eV=1.602*10-12ergs. Masses are also given by their "mass-equivalent" energy (E=mc2). The mass of the proton is 938.27231 MeV.
Where: e is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light. Einstein's famous equation describes how energy and mass are related. In our animated decays, mass is lost. That mass is converted into energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. Because the speed of light is so great, a little matter can transform into large amount of energy.
A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation, similar to x-rays and light, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom, and, in general, has a shorter wavelength. Gamma rays emission is a decay mode by which excited state of a nucleus de-excite to lower (more stable) state in the same nucleus. In our diagrams, a gamma ray is represented by this:
A radiation detector consisting of two electrodes with a low-pressure gas in between. A voltage is maintains such that if radiation passing through the counter ionizes the gas, an avalanche of electrons will occur. Geiger counters can count radiation but cannot distinguish either the energy or kind of radiation.
A lowest energy state of the nucleus.
Helium Burning (triple alpha process)
When temperature in the core of a star reaches 100 million degrees, three colliding helium nuclei fuse to form a carbon nucleus. This process occurs when the star is a red giant.
Hydrogen burning is the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei (protons) into a single helium nucleus (two protons and neutrons.) The process is a series of reactions. The type of reactions depend on the mass of a star and its core temperature and density. In our Sun, the process is a proton-proton chain. In more massive stars, the C-N-O cycle (Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen) serves to fuse hydrogen into helium.
A long-lived excited state of the nucleus. Arbitrarily defined in as the Table of Isotopes as having a half-life greater than 1 ms.
Two or more nuclides having the same atomic number, thus constituting the same element, but differing in the mass number. Isotopes of a given element have the same number of nuclear protons but differing numbers of neutrons. Naturally occurring chemical elements are usually mixtures of isotopes so that observed (non-integer) atomic weights are average values for the mixture.
An electrically neutral particle with negligible mass. It is produced in many nuclear reactions such as in beta decay. In our diagrams, it is represented by this:
One of the basic particles which make up an atom. A neutron and a proton have about the same weight, but the neutron has no electrical charge. In our diagrams, a neutron is represented by this:
Nuclear decay by emission of a neutron.
Reaction between an energetic incident projectile (neutron, proton, or nucleus ) from a reactor or particle accelerator and a target nucleus producing product nuclides, gamma rays, particles, and other radiations.
- Cold Fusion
- Neutron Capture
- Coulomb Excitation
When two nuclei pass each other, the electrostatic repulsion can excite a nucleus enough to release gamma rays.
- Particle Transfer
Cold fusion should not be confused with the other cold fusion which was debunked several years ago.
A collision process for gamma rays with energies greater than 1022-keV (two electron masses) where an electron /positron pair is produced. A heavy nucleus must be present for pair production. For high-energy gamma rays the pair production process is proportional to Z2 and ln(gamma).
A nucleus or particle has odd (-) or even (+) parity according to whether or not its wave function changes sign when all of the space coordinates are changed.
Collision process between an x-ray or gamma rays and a bound atomic electron where the photon disappears, the bound electron is ejected, and the incident energy is shared between the ejected electron and the remaining atom. The photon energy must be greater than the atomic binding energy. The probability for the photoelectric effect is approximately proportional to Z5 of the absorber and falls of by about E(gamma)3.5.
Positron decay in matter by annihilation with an electron. Usually and "atom" of positronium (e+e-) forms which annihilates to produce two 511-keV photons. Occasionally, the positron will annihilate in flight to produce on or more photons sharing the total rest mass and kinetic energy of the positron and electron.
One of the basic particles which makes up an atom. The proton is found in the nucleus and has a positive electrical charge equivalent to the negative charge of an electron and a mass similar to that of a neutron. A proton is a hydrogen nucleus. In our diagrams, a proton is represented by this:
In the Sun and other less massive stars, this chain is the primary source of heat and radiation. The proton-proton chain converts hydrogen into helium releasing energy in the form of particles and gamma-rays. Hydrogen is converted into helium in a chain of reactions. The first reaction takes an average of 1 billion years to occur while the others are much shorter. One step is only 1 second long. In the Sun, there are so many hydrogen nuclei that the 1 billion year waiting period does not stop it from producing tremendous radiation.
List of the steps
Proton Separation Energy
The energy required to remove a proton from a nucleus.
A scintillation counter consists of a material that emits light when radiation passes through it. Various liquid, plastic, and crystalline materials have scintillation properties. Scintillation light is measured with photomultiplier tubes. In general the amount of scintillator light detected is proportional to the energy of the radiation.
Radiation striking very pure Ge and Si semiconductor detectors can excite a large number of electrons into the conduction band leading to a measurable current. This current is proportional to the energy of the radiation. Semiconductor detectors can be used to accurately measure the energy and intensity of radiation.
Used to describe the angular momentum of the nucleus.
Triple Alpha Process (see helium burning)
A type of radiation of higher frequency (or energy) that visible light but lower that gamma rays. Usually produced by fast electrons going through matter or by the de-excitation of excited atoms. In our diagrams, a x-ray is represented by this:
*Copyright ©1998 Justin Matis